To understand any technical related topic/subject, multiple layers of understanding need to be developed as its usage is not confined to a particular section of the topic rather it may find its application in various fields of science. Knowing approximately the electrical fields, exploring them, and demonstrating them can be put in one category. For thoroughly grasping the knowledge it is important to go in depth study of the topic meaning acquiring the knowledge of complicated mathematical equations. Still some other layer of knowledge is to visualize the fields the use of numerous strategies of rendering them visible.
Now it is often observed that candidates jump start their journey with reference book rather than sticking to their prescribed textbooks. By doing so the candidate is not only messing up their chances of getting selected in the competitive exams but also playing with their grade 12th board exams. So, the first reading has to be from their respective state board textbooks or NCERT books. This is then followed by the reference book which may provide an in-depth knowledge of topic. By reading textbooks a candidate will be not only be able to build strong fundamentals but also will be able to justify its various applications.
Under the topic of electrostatic potential and capacitance following can be noted. Potential and capacity are derived from the concept of electric charge. Charge is a comparison of the number of protons and electrons a substance has. When there are more protons than electrons, there is a net positive charge. Conversely, if there are more electrons than protons, then there is a net negative charge. Equal numbers of protons and electrons have a neutral charge. Charged materials also exhibit electrical forces. Opposite charges (such as positive and negative charges) attract while similar charges (such as positive and positive or negative and negative) repel. Now what is the unit of measure for electric charge? it is the coulomb (C). Protons and electrons have a charge of +1.602 E 19 C and 1.602 E 19 C respectively. Since the accumulation of microscopic electrons and protons determines the macroscopic charge, the charge values of protons and electrons are considered elementary charges. What moves an electric charge is a potential. As the name suggests, potential measures the change in potential energy of a given charge. The unit of potential is joules per coulomb (J/C) and measures the amount of work per charge. The J/C unit, commonly referred to as the volt (V), is a ubiquitous unit of measurement for electrical potential. The concept of electrical potential and gravitational potential energy is often compared. The higher the object is above the ground, the greater the gravitational potential energy of the object. Likewise, the farther an object is from a charge, the more potential it can use.
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The potential is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the point charge. This suggests that the more the object moves away from the point charge, the faster the potential decreases. Also, measuring potentials at different points around an object can create a curve centered on the object where each point has the same potential. An attractive or repulsive force exists when two objects that contain an electric charge are next to each other. This is usually indicated by a line coming from a positively charged source, with an arrow pointing to and ending with a negatively charged source. However, the description and application of electric fields is beyond the scope of this article.
Potential measures the ability to work with an electric charge, while capacitance measures the ability to store an electric charge. The unit of measurement of capacitance is the coulombs per voltage (C/V), i.e., the amount of charge per applied voltage. Farads (F) are usually used to measure capacitance instead of the C/V ratio. Capacitors are used to store capacitance and are created when two plates are parallel to each other, each end connected to an opposite charge source. Each charge fills one of the parallel plates and creates an electric field between them. The capacitor can then discharge a charge between the two plates when connected.
Do you know how to Derive an expression for the electric potential due to a point charge?
Let the surface charge density be σ. In this case, there is plane symmetry, and the electric field is perpendicular to the charge plane. For a positively charged plane, the field moves away from the charge plane. You are using a cylindrical Gaussian surface that passes through the plane and has straight edges parallel to the plane. Because the electric field is perpendicular to the plane of charge, it gives a magnetic flux of zero on the curved surface of the cylinder (θ = 90⁰). The angle between the vector of a straight surface area and the electric field is zero.
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